August 10, 2016

If you have ever worked with GHC.TypeLits then you have probably encountered an error that is very similar to:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 |
Test.hs:9:7: error: • Could not deduce (KnownNat (n + 2)) arising from a use of ‘natVal’ from the context: KnownNat n bound by the type signature for: f :: KnownNat n => Proxy n -> Integer at Test.hs:7:1-48 |

In our case, the above error originates in the following file:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 |
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds, ScopedTypeVariables, TypeOperators #-} module Test where import GHC.TypeLits import Data.Proxy f :: forall n . KnownNat n => Proxy n -> Integer f _ = natVal (Proxy :: Proxy n) + natVal (Proxy :: Proxy (n+2)) |

The problem is that, even though we have a `KnownNat n`

(a *type*-level natural `n`

which we can reflect to a *term*-level `Integer`

), GHC cannot infer `KnownNat (n+2)`

. You would think that, in 2016, given a natural number `n`

, an advanced compiler such as GHC should *surely* be able to infer the value corresponding to the natural number `n + 2`

: you simply add 2 to already given `n`

. Sadly, GHC can not do this… and, *surely*, complaints were made.

As I’ve blogged about in another post, GHC supports so-called type-checker plugins since version 7.10.1. Type checker plugins let us extend GHC’s constraint solver, i.e., extend the range of programs GHC can type check.

So, given that GHC 7.10.1 was released on March 27 2015, surely somebody must have already written a type-checker plugin that can fix our annoying `KnownNat`

issue, right? Well, even if someone did, such a plugin has never been released on hackage, until today that is: https://hackage.haskell.org/package/ghc-typelits-knownnat

By just adding the following line:

`{-# OPTIONS_GHC -fplugin GHC.TypeLits.KnownNat.Solver #-}`

to our program:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 |
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds, ScopedTypeVariables, TypeOperators #-} {-# OPTIONS_GHC -fplugin GHC.TypeLits.KnownNat.Solver #-} module Test where import GHC.TypeLits import Data.Proxy f :: forall n . KnownNat n => Proxy n -> Integer f _ = natVal (Proxy :: Proxy n) + natVal (Proxy :: Proxy (n+2) |

we can finally see that “all is right with the world (of KnownNat)”:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 |
$ ghci -XDataKinds -XTypeApplications Test.hs GHCi, version 8.0.1: http://www.haskell.org/ghc/ :? for help [1 of 1] Compiling Test ( Test.hs, interpreted ) Ok, modules loaded: Test. *Test> f (Proxy @2) 6 |

Now, there are probably a multitude of reasons as to why a plugin for solving `KnownNat`

constraints wasn’t build/released before now; one of the likely reasons being that both the GHC API, and type-checker plugins, are somewhat obscure. Then again, I, the author of this post, *have* written several type-checker plugins, and I *am* (at least somewhat) familiar with those parts of the GHC API that are involved with constraint solving. So what are the reasons that *I* didn’t build such a plugin (much) earlier:

- To be honest, I was personally never too bothered with typing in the extra
`KnownNat`

constraints. That is, until I wanted to simplify the API of one of the libraries that I work on. - I thought it couldn’t be done.

I will now focus on point 2, the reason I thought it couldn’t be done.

Basically, what Type checker plugins must do is provide *evidence* for the constraints GHC wants them to solve; where this *evidence* takes on the form of EvTerm:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 |
data EvTerm = EvId EvId -- ^ Any sort of evidence Id, including coercions | EvCoercion TcCoercion -- ^ coercion bindings -- See Note [Coercion evidence terms] | EvCast EvTerm TcCoercionR -- ^ d |> co | EvDFunApp DFunId [Type] [EvTerm] -- ^ Dictionary instance application | EvDelayedError Type FastString -- ^Used with Opt_DeferTypeErrors -- See Note [Deferring coercion errors to runtime] in TcSimplify | EvSuperClass EvTerm Int -- ^ n'th superclass. Used for both equalities and -- dictionaries, even though the former have no -- selector Id. We count up from _0_ | EvLit EvLit -- ^ Dictionary for KnownNat and KnownSymbol classes. -- Note [KnownNat & KnownSymbol and EvLit] | EvCallStack EvCallStack -- ^ Dictionary for CallStack implicit parameters | EvTypeable Type EvTypeable -- ^ Dictionary for (Typeable ty) |

Where, for example, the evidence for a `KnownNat 8`

constraint, would be encoded by `EvLit (EvNum 8)`

. OK, so what’s the problem with `EvTerm`

? Well, let me first explain what we are trying to do:

- Given e.g. evidence for
`KnownNat n`

and`KnownNat 2`

- We want to add the two values of the evidence to create evidence for
`KnownNat (n+2)`

.

And this is where we run into problems: `EvTerm`

does not have a constructor for adding two `KnownNat`

evidence terms. Actually, the more general problem is that it doesn’t allow us to create (arbitrary) Core expressions which will perform the addition. This problem is discussed in more detail at: https://ghc.haskell.org/trac/ghc/wiki/Plugins/TypeChecker#Underdiscussion:EmbeddingCoreExprinEvTerm.

So, this made me think that it was simply not possible to create a `KnownNat`

solver given the current (version 8.0.1) state of the GHC API. And then, yesterday (August 9th, 2016), just before bed, after staring for some time at the `EvTerm`

definition, I realised I could use the `EvDFunApp`

constructor to do what I want!

As some of you might already know, class constraints in Haskell are translated to so-called dictionaries by GHC. A dictionary is record, where the fields correspond to the methods (and super-classes) of the class. So, e.g. for the `Eq`

class:

Haskell

1 2 3 |
class Eq a where (==) :: a -> a -> Bool (/=) :: a -> a -> Bool |

GHC creates the following dictionary:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 |
data DEq a = DEq { (==$) :: a -> a -> Bool , (/=$) :: a -> a -> Bool } |

Now, what perhaps fewer people know, is that for instances with class constraints, GHC creates *dictionary functions*: functions that create dictionaries. i.e. given the instance:

Haskell

1 2 3 |
instance (Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (a,b) where (==) (a,b) (c,d) = a == c && b == d (/=) (a,b) (c,d) = a /= c || b /= d |

GHC creates a dictionary function:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 |
dfunEqTup d1 d2 = DEq { (==$) = \(a,b) (c,d) -> (&&) ((==) d1 a c) ((==) d2 b d) , (/=$) = \(a,b) (c,d) -> (||) ((/=) d1 a c) ((/=) d2 b d) } |

Now that we know what *dictionary functions* are, we can come back to the `EvDFunApp`

constructor of `EvTerm`

.

`EvDFunApp`

applies dictionaries to a given *dictionary function*. That is, where *dictionary functions* are our *evidence-level* lambdas, `EvDFunApp`

is our *evidence-level* application. This means that all we need to do is figure out how to write an instance that gives us our *evidence-level* arithmetic operations, and we would be in business.

Below follows the code for our specially crafted class, and corresponding instance, so that we get an _evidence-level_ addition operation:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 |
{-# LANGUAGE AllowAmbiguousTypes #-} {-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-} {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-} {-# LANGUAGE KindSignatures #-} {-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-} {-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-} {-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications #-} {-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-} import Data.Proxy import GHC.TypeLits newtype SNatKn (n :: Nat) = SNatKn Integer class KnownNatAdd (a :: Nat) (b :: Nat) where natSingAdd :: SNatKn (a + b) instance (KnownNat a, KnownNat b) => KnownNatAdd a b where natSingAdd = SNatKn (natVal (Proxy @a) + natVal (Proxy @b)) |

For the above code, GHC will generate the desired _dictionary function_ to do _evidence-level_ addition:

Haskell

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dfunKnownNatAdd :: forall a b . DKnownNat a -> DKnownNat b -> DKnownNatAdd a b dfunKnownNatAdd kn1 kn2 = DKnownNatAdd { natSingAdd = SNatKn (natVal kn1 (Proxy @a) + natVal kn2 (Proxy @b)) } |

OK, so we can now build a `DKnownNatAdd`

dictionary, however, this only gives us _evidence_ for a `KnownNatAdd`

constraint, but not for a `KnownNat`

constraint. And this is where another lesser-known aspect of GHCs translation of classes comes in:

- Single method classes are represented by
`newtype`

dictionaries in GHC.

And, we can safe cast a `newtype`

to (and from) its underlying representation using coercions.

Looking at the code for our *evidence-level* addition, we can now see that:

`KnownNatAdd`

is nothing more than a`newtype`

wrapper around`SNatKn`

`SNatKn`

is a newtype wrapper around`Integer`

.

And, when we take a look at the (hidden) definition of `KnownNat`

:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 |
newtype SNat (n :: Nat) = SNat Integer class KnownNat (n :: Nat) where natSing :: SNat n |

we see that `KnownNat`

is, ultimately, also nothing more than a `newtype`

wrapper around `Integer`

. This means we can safely cast our `DKnownNatAdd`

dictionary to the `DKnownNat`

dictionary (the code for these coercions can be found here):

- KnownNatAdd a b ~ SNatKn (a + b)
- SNatKn (a + b) ~ Integer
- Integer ~ SNat (a + b)
- SNat (a + b) ~ KnownNat (a + b)

And that’s it:

- We have our
`DKnownNatAdd`

dictionary function for _evidence-level_ addition. - A way to safely cast a
`DKnownNatAdd`

dictionary to a`DKnownNat`

dictionary, the evidence for`KnownNat`

constraints.

So now finally, on August 10th 2016, using the ghc-typelits-knownnat type checker plugin, GHC can finally solve “complex” `KnownNat`

constraints from other simple, single variable, `KnownNat`

constraints. So does that mean it can infer all kinds of “complex” `KnownNat`

constraints? Well… no, it can (currently) only infer constraints involving:

- Type-level natural numbers
- Type variables
- Applications of the following type-level operations:
`+`

,`*`

, and`^`

.

i.e. it cannot solve constraints involving subtraction (`-`

) or user-specified type-level operations on type-level naturals, such as:

Haskell

1 2 3 4 5 6 |
import Data.Type.Bool import GHC.TypeLits type family Min (x :: Nat) (y :: Nat) :: Nat where Min x y = If (x <=? y) x |

Where the problem with subtraction is that it is a partial function on natural numbers. Let’s say someone writes:

Haskell

1 2 3 |
g :: forall n . KnownNat n => Proxy n -> Integer g _ = natVal (Proxy :: Proxy n) + natVal (Proxy :: Proxy (n-4)) |

then we should not just automatically solve the `KnownNat (n-4)`

constraint from the given `KnownNat n`

constraint, because for `0 <= n < 4`

, `n-4`

is not a natural number. In this case, we should only automatically infer `KnownNat (n-4)`

when an additional `4 <= n`

constraint is given:

Haskell

1 2 3 |
g0 :: forall n . (KnownNat n, 4 <= n) => Proxy n -> Integer g0 _ = natVal (Proxy :: Proxy n) + natVal (Proxy :: Proxy (n-4)) |

I think I know how to check for these additional constraints, so a future version of the plugin will automatically solve `KnownNat`

constraints involving subtractions. For user-defined type-level natural operations we are currently out of luck: unlike for the standard operations in `GHC.TypeLits`

, we cannot encode the corresponding *dictionary functions* beforehand. Perhaps, once arbitrary Core expressions can be used as evidence (discussed here), we can reflect type-level operations to evidence-level operations, and then also automatically solve `KnownNat`

constraints over user-defined type-level operations.

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